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Madagascar Cloves

121 bytes added, 18:25, 5 April 2020
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'''The clove tree, botanically named ''Syzygium aromaticum'', is a member of the ''Myrtaceae'' family of evergreen trees, which typically grows in a humid tropical climate below 300m where there is no noticeable dry season. While clove farming has existed in Madagascar since 1820, clove became a number one cash-crop in 1990, providing an important contribution for Malagasy households, allowing farmers to supplement their incoming income during shortfalls in food production.'''
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By 1920/1930 Madagascar became a major producer and exporter of cloves and clove essential oil and is since the 1990s the world's leading exporter.
Clove production span along the east coast of Madagascar from Sambava to Fort Dauphin and especially throughout Analanjirofo (Malagasy for "clove-forest"), which makes up part of the Toamasina Province, including [[Tamatave]], [[Sainte Marie|Sainte Marie Island]] (Île Sainte-Marie), [[Mananara]] and [[Fenoarivo Atsinanana]] (Fénérive or Fénérive-Est) and the [[Soanierana Ivongo]] district. About 90% of Madagascar's clove production is concentrated around Mananara, Soanierana Ivongo and Fénérive Est.
The tree grows well in [ ferralitic] tropical soil and usually gets between 10 and 12 metres but can get as tall as 20 metres.
Non-food uses include mixing the spice with tobacco in Indonesian clove cigarettes called ''kretek'' which accounts for a large proportion of Madagascar's clove exports and world-production.
Clove oil is is widely used as a base in perfumes, for example in ''l'Air du Temps'' by Nina Ricci and ''Opium'' by Yves Sain-Laurent.
Clove's main ingredient, eugenol, is a bioactive compound with anti-bacterial, fungicide, antiseptic, antioxidant, anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory effects. It is furthermore used in aromatherapy and various traditional, human and veterinary medicines including dentistry, toothpaste...
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