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Madagascar Cloves

144 bytes added, 04:27, 20 August 2018
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'''The clove tree, botanically named ''Syzygium aromaticum L.'', is a member of the ''[ Myrtaceae]'' family of evergreen trees, which typically grows in humid tropical climate below 300m where there is no noticeable dry season. While clove farming has existed in Madagascar since 1820, clove became a number one cash-crop in in 19301990, providing an important contribition for Malagasy households, allowing farmers to supplement their incoming during shortfalls in food production.'''
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By 1920/1930 Madagascar became a major producer and exporter of cloves and clove essential oil and is since 1990s the world's leading exporter.
Clove production span along the entire east coast of Madagascar from Sambava to Fort Dauphin and especially throughout the an area known as Analanjirofo (Malagasy for "clove-forest"), which makes up part of the Toamasina Province, including [[Tamatave]], [[Sainte Marie]] island (Île Sainte-Marie), [[Mananara]] and [[Fenoarivo Atsinanana]] (Fénérive or Fénérive-Est) and [[Soanierana Ivongo]] district. About 90% of Madagascar's clove production is concentrated around Mananara, Soanierana Ivongo and Fénérive Est.
The tree grows well in [ ferralitic] tropical soil and usually gets between 10 and 12 metres but can get as tall as 20 metres.
Cloves are is widely used as a base in perfumes, for example in ''l'Air du Temps'' by Nina Ricci and ''Opium'' by Yves Sain-Laurent.
Clove's main ingriedient, euganol, is a bioactive compound with anti-bacterial, fungicide, anticeptic, antioixidant, anaesthetic and analgesic effects. It is furthermore used in aromatherapy, pharmacy, human and veterinary medicine including dentistry. Euganol can however be toxic in relatively small doses. It has been reported that a dose of 5-10ml has been a nearly fatal dose for a two year old.
Clove oil is produced by hydrodistillation of the leaves, although essential oils derived from the clove bud and stem produce the highest yields.

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